Clandestine translations during Franco’s dictatorship: Poesia (1944-1945) and Ariel (1946-1951)

Montserrat Bacardí


After the Spanish Civil War, Francisco Franco’s dictatorship banned Catalan translations for a decade. But in 1948, Carles Riba’s version of the Odyssey and Josep Maria de Sagarra’s version of the Divine Comedy were published, albeit with severe restrictions. These restrictions remained virtually unchanged until 1962, when the regime began allowing the publication of Catalan translations without prior censorship. In the 1940s, when the repression was at its fiercest, two underground journals in Catalan, Poesia (1944-1945) and Ariel (1946-1951), regularly translated a portion of some of the classics of Western literature, and also published contemporary and avant-garde material as well as the most recent works.


Ariel; Catalan translation; Franco; Underground publishing